|Rousse - City and District
Rousse Basic Data
|2,800 square km.
|Places of interest:
|Rousse, Dve Mogili, Byala
Rousse General Information
Rousse is the largest Bulgarian city on Danube River. It is situated in the north-eastern part of Bulgaria, 300 km far from the national’s capital Sofia. Rousse’s rich historical past shows that the Danube River was the basis of existence. From it’s foundation up to now, in spite of the names the town had through 19 centuries, it was a Danube harbor. Rousse borders Silistra, Targovishte, Veliko Turnovo and Razgrad districts. The location of the city is one of its biggest advantages – 2 transport corridors are passing through Rousse – number 7 (Danube River) and number 9 (Russia – Moldova – Romania – Rousse – Veliko Turnovo – Stara Zagora – Haskovo – Greece/Turkey. Rousse port is the biggest Bulgarian port on Danube River. The Rousse Bridge gives direct connection to Romania
The town was founded at the time of the Roman emperor Vespasian over the period of 69 - 79 AD as a fortress called Sexaginta Prista, meaning The harbor of the sixty ships. The fortress lasted for almost six centuries and then perished under the storms of the Barberian invasions.
In the Middle Ages the Rousse region was among the most developed areas of the Bulgarian state. At the time of the Otoman Yoke Rousse was an important fortress and the main gate to the north of the Turkish empire. It was called Rouschouk.
In the nineteenth century, Rousse was the first town in Bulgaria to acquire a pronounced European look which came an illustration of its economic prosperity at the turn of the century. The first and only newspaper printed in Bulgaria in Bulgarian came out in Rousse in 1865. The building of the Rousse - Varna railway which was the first of its kind in the Balkan lands largely contributed to the growing significance of the town. The first public pharmacy and the first bookshop were opened in Rousse. In 1871 the first teachers’ association was set up here.
After the Liberation in 1878, Rousse continued being one of the largest towns in Bulgaria. It became the cradle of the Bulgarian shipbuilding when the first iron ship was built in 1881. The first private bank "Girdap" with authorized capital of 5 million golden francs and the insurance company "Bulgaria" were established in 1881. The first Chamber of commerce and industry in Bulgaria was established in Rousse in 1895. In 1897 just two years after the show of the Lumiere brothers in Paris, the residents of Rousse were the first to see the motion pictures.
Rousse is the most active and authoritative cultural centre on the Bulgarian part of the Danube. It is the host-town of several significant annual cultural events - The March Music Days International Festival of symphony, cantata and oratorio music, International Jazz Festival, Golden Rebec Folk Festival and International Theatre Festival "Danube European river, Danube - Balkan river".
In Rousse there are state cultural institutions of regional and national importance - Rousse Opera House, Rousse Philharmonic Orchestra, Dramatic Theatre and Puppet Theatre. They successfully perform on international stages.
The Rousse District Library was established in 1888 and up to now actively participates in the town’s cultural life. It holds British, French and German informational centers. The library possesses today over 700 000 books and documents in 18 languages.
The Rousse Museum of history was established in 1904. It has five departments - Archaeology, Nature, Ethnography, Bulgarian history of the XIV - XIX century and New history. In the town there are three permanent exhibitions: in the Museum of XIX - XX century town’s life and culture; in the House-museum "Zahary Stoyanov" and in The National Revival Pantheon. The Rousse Art Gallery was opened in 1933 and it preserves and exhibits national and foreign art works.
The Folk Dancing Theatre "N. Kirov" is a favorite beyond the country’s boundaries. Very successful in their work are the children’s ensembles "Zornitsa", "Rouschukliice" and "Zdravetz". The Rousse choirs "Dounavski Zvoutsi", "V.Arnaudov" and "Rodina" have an international reputation.
Some 23 kilometers south-west of Rousse there is an unique archaeological reserve - the remarkable Ivanovo rock monasteries. Located at a height of 6 to 8 meters, the cells have been inhabited by monks until the 17th century. Chronicles and the preserved church murals show that the community of hermits also created a blossoming literary center during the 13th - 14th century. The rock monasteries have been evaluated as an important stage in the development of European culture and recorded on the UNESCO List of World Cultural Heritage.
The Ivanovo churches contain some of the best frescoes of Bulgarian religious art.
7 kilometers south-west of Ivanovo is the Fortress of Cherven, dated from the Middle Ages. It was one of the most important military, economical, cultural and religious centers of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom. The ruins are restored and can be visited.
The river Rusenski Lom is a flow into the Danube river south-west of Rousse, hewing out a picturesque canyon in the Danube valley with its meanders and vertical rocks. To preserve this natural wealth, the area was pronounced a Roussenski Lom National Park. The biggest treasure of the Park are the birds, so it is included in the List of European's most important ornitological sites.
The climate in Rousse is temperate-continental with cold winter and hot summer. The relief of the region is predominantly plain with hills. There are no big finds of ores or minerals in the district. 77% of the land in Rousse is agricultural. The sowings are mainly of wheat, corn, sunflower and vegetables. Stockbreeding is presented by cattle, poultry and pigs. The industrial sector contributes most for the economy, which is also supplemented by the trade and the transport sectors.
Industries of interest - The leading branches are:
• Production of food, drinks, tobacco and tobacco products
• Production of chemical and petroleum products
• Production of vehicles
• Production of textile and knitted fabrics
• Tailoring production
• Furriery, leather and shoe-manufacturing industry
• Production of rubber and plastic products
• Production of electrotechnical machinery and precise techniques
• Mining industry
The food and beverage (bread, meat and dairy products) and the textile industries are the most developed and account for big portion of Rousse’s GP. Ship-building is also present in with the ship-building factory in Rousse.
Rousse Picture Gallery